A

They are those that are ionized in solution and were the hydrophobic group is negatively charged They are constituted by a linear alkyl chain. For example: sulphonic acid.

D

They are chemical substances that have components of surface agents called surfactants. It is important to highlight two important properties of the dispersants: hydrophobic or lyophobic and hydrophilic or lyophilic. According to their chemical structure they are classified as: anionic, cationic, non-ionic. The efficiency is determined by the absorption of the polar group towards the surface. The behavior of the non-polar chain in the medium that surrounds the particle. The molecular weight of these products is low, usually between 1000 and 2000 g / mol.

E

A substance that makes an emulsion possible by serving as a dispersing agent when two non-miscible phases are added to the mixture. They present activity on the surface, reducing the surface tension of the liquid in which it is dissolved or the surface tension.   For a substance to be an emulsifying agent it is required to contain two groups: one polar or hydrophilic and one non-polar or hydrophobic. The polar part has an affinity for polar solvents, particularly water, while the apolar part has affinity for organic solvents, in particular hydrocarbons, oils or fats.

N

It's a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base producing a salt and water.

S

It's an element that acts as a detergent, emulsifier or humectant and that allows to reduce the surperficial tension that exists in a fluid. In general, these are substances that influence the contact area created between two phases.

The superficial tension refers to the level of energy that is needed for a liquid to increase its surface area per unit area. This means that there is a resistance in the liquid to increase the surface.

Surfactants are composed of hydrophobic parts which reject water and hydrophilic parts which are soluble in water. So when the surfactant is linked to water, the molecules of the first group remain at the surface level while the hydrophilic molecules are submerged causing bubbles bubbles to form.

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